Abbreviations

A Acid
A ampere
A angstrom
aa amino acid
AA Atomic Absorption
AAAS American Association for the Advancement of Science
AACI American Association for Clinical Chemistry
AALAS American Association for Laboratory Animal Science
AAMI Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation
Ab antibody
ABIF Avidin-Biotin Immunofluorescence
ACE Adverse Clinical Event
ACE Angiotensin-converting enzyme
ACGIH American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
ACIF Anticomplement immunofluorescence
ADCC antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity
ADE Adverse Drug Event
ADI accepted daily intake
ADME Absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination
ADXPS Angular Dependent X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
AED Atomic Emission Detector
AEM Analytical Electron Microscopy
AES atomic emission spectroscopy
AES Auger electron spectroscopy
AFB Acid-fast bacilli
AFLB Amplification fragment length polymorphism
AFM Atomic Force Microscopy
AFS Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy
A/G albumin-to-globulin
ACIL American Council of Independent Laboratories
ACS American Chemical Society
AE Agarose electrophoresis
Ag antigen
ALK Alkaline
ALP Accredited Laboratory Program
ALT Alanine aminotransferase
AMA Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946
AMI Antibody-mediated immune response
ANA Anti-nuclear Antibodies
ANOVA Analysis of Variance
ANSI American National Standards Institute
AOAC Association of Official Analytical Chemists
APB Acid Producing Bacteria
APC antigen presenting cell
APS Appearance potential spectroscopy
APSTM Analytical Photon Scanning Tunneling Microscope
AQL Acceptable Quality Level
AR analytical reagent
AR Antimicrobial Resistance
ARUPS Angle-resolved ultraviolet spectroscopy
ASM American Society for Microbiology
ASCP American Society of Clinical Pathologists
ASQC American Society for Quality Control
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
ATC Acute Toxic Class
ATCC American Type Culture Collection
ATP Adenosine Triphosphate
ATSDR Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
AWQC Ambient Water Quality Criteria
B cell bursa-derived lymphocyte
BA-ELISA Biotin-avidin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
BAC bacterial artificial chromosome
BAC Biological Activated Carbon
BAM Bacteriological Analytical Manual
BAP Blood Agar Plate
BBB Blood-Brain Barrier
BCF Bioconcentration factor
BCG Bacille Calmette-Guerin
bcr Breakpoint cluster region
BHP British Herbal Pharmacopeia
BEI Biological Exposure Index
BEM Biological effect monitoring
BFP Biofilm Formation Potential
BFU-E Burst-forming unit — erythrocytes
BIMO Bioresearch Monitoring
BIO Biotechnology Industry Organization
BL BioLuminescence
BLA Biologics License Application
BOD Biological Oxygen Demand
bp base pair
BP British Pharmacopoeia
BRU Brucella blood agar
BSC Biological Safety Cabinet
BSA Bovine Serum Albumin
BSL Biosafety Level
Bt Bacillus thuringiensis
BQ becquerel
C:N Carbon-to-nitrogen ratio
C&S Culture and sensitivity
CA Chemical Abstracts
CAAL Consortium for Automated Analytical Laboratories
Caco -2 Human acute leukemia cell line
CAE Cellulose acetate electrophoresis
CAE capillary array electrophoresis
CAM cell adhesion molecule
CAP Chocolate agar plate
CAP College of American Pathologists
CARS Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy
CAS Chemical Abstracts Service
CCA Campy-Cefex Agar Plate
CCFA Cycloserine-Cefoxitin-Fructose Agar
CCFAC Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants
CCL-30 Human nasal septum cells – squamous cell carcinoma
CCT Constant Current Topography
CD cluster designation antigen
cDNA Complementary DNA
CE Capillary Electrophoresis
CF Complement fixation
CFIA Canadian Food Inspection Agency
CFU Colony forming unit
CFU -GM Colony-forming unit – granulocyte/macrophage
CFU -MK Colony-forming unit – megakaryocytes
CGC Capillary Gas Electrophoresis
CGE Capillary Gel Electrophoresis
CHA Concentric hemispherical analyzer
CHO Carbohydrates
CHO Chinese hamster ovary
CI Chemical Ionization
CIA Chemiluminescence Assays
CIE Counterimmunoelectrophoresis
CIEF Capillary Isoelectric Focusing
CITS Current imaging tunneling spectroscopy
CL ChemiLuminescence
CLSI Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute
CMI cell mediated immunity
CML cell-mediated lysis
CNN Computational Neural Network
CP Crude Protein
CPI cell proliferation index
CoA Coagglutination
COGAP Code of Good Agricultural Practice
COSY correlation spectroscopy
CPE Cytopathic effect
CRO Contract Research Organization
CS Casein
CSA colony stimulating factor
CT Computed tomography
CTL cytotoxic lymphocytes
CWA Clean Water Act
CYA Charcoal yeast extract
CZE Capillary Zone Electrophoresis
DA Direct agglutination
DC dendritic cell
DESI Drug Efficacy Study Implementation
DFA Direct fluorescent antibody test
DGGE denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis
DIC dissolved inorganic carbon
DIC Disseminated intravascular coagulation
Diff. differential blood count
DME Detrimental Microbiological Effects
DNMR Dynamic Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
DO Dissolved Oxygen
DOC Dissolved Organic Carbon
DPP Differential Pulse Polarography
DRIFT Diffuse-Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform spectroscopy
DRV daily reference value
DSITMS direct sampling ion trap mass spectrometry
DSC/TGA differential scanning calorimeter/thermogravimetric analyzer
DSC Differential Scanning Calorimetry
DTA Differential Thermal Analysis
DTC Differential Thermal Calorimetry
DTG Differential Thermogravimetry
DTH delayed type hypersensitivity
EAP Enterococcosel Agar Plate
ECACC European Collection of Cell Cultures
ECD electron capture detection
ECETOC European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals
ECF eosinophil chemotactic factor
ECLs Established Cell Lines
ECL electrochemiluminescence
EDS Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy
EELS Electron Energy Loss Spectrometry
EFFF Electric Field Flow Fractionation
EGR Exponential Growth Rate
EH&S environmental Health and Safety
EI Electron Ionization
EIA Enzyme immunoassay
ELISA Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assays
ELR Electronic laboratory reporting
ELSD Evaporative Light Scattering Detection
EM Electron Microscopy
EMB Eosin Methylene Blue
EMC Electromagnetic Compatiability
EMIRS Electrochemically Modulated IR Spectroscopy
ENDOR electron nuclear double resonance
EP Extraction Procedure
EPMA Electron Probe MicroAnalysis
EPR electron paramagnetic resonance
ES embryonic stem
ESCA Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis
ES-MS electrospray mass spectrometry
ESI electrospray ionization
ESP Electrostatic Precipitor
ESR Electron Spin Resonance
EXAFS extended X-ray absorption fine structure
EYA Egg yolk agar
Eh Oxidation-reduction potential
FAA Furnace Atomic Absorption
FAAS Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
FABMS Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry
FACS fluorescent-activated cell sorter
EOS End of Study
EP Electrophoresis
EP European Pharmacopoeia
EPA environmental Protection Agency
EPMA electron probe microanalysis
EPL Effective Patent Life
EMI Electronmagnetic Interference
EMIT Enzyme Multiplies Immunoassay Technique
EMLAP environmental Microbiology Laboratory Accreditation Program
Ent. Entomology
ER / ES Electronic Records / Electronic Signatures
ESACT European Society for Animal Cell Technology
EST Expressed Sequence Tag
ETO Ethylene Oxide
EU Endotoxin Unit
EUP Experimental Use Permit
F Fluorimetry
FA Fluorescent antibody
FAB-MS fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry
FACS fluorescence-activated cell sorter
FAMA Fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen
FARCE Freezing at the reactive centers of enzymes
FASP food additive safety profile
FAT fluorescent antibody test
FCM Flow cyctometry
Fc crystalizable region of antibody
FD/MS field desorption mass spectrometry
FEM Field emission microscopy
FES Flame Emission Spectroscopy

FFAs Free Fatty Acids
FFF Field-flow (field-force) fractionation
FIA Flow Injection Analysis
FIA Fluorescent immunoassay
FIFR Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act
FIM Field Ion Microscopy
FIMS field ionization mass spectrometry
FISH Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization
FITC Fluorescein isothiocyanate
FPIA Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay
FR framework region of antibody
FSIS Food Safety and Inspection Service
FT Fourier Transform Mass Analyzers
FTA Fluorescent treponemal antibody
FTICR fourier transform ioncyclotron resonance
FTIR Fourier Transform Infrared
FS Feasibility Study
G-CSF Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor
GAP Good agricultural practice
GBASE Genome Database of the Mouse
GC Gas Chromatography
GC/MS Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry
GDB Genome Database
GEO genetically engineered organisms
GLC Gas-liquid chromatography
GLP Good Laboratory Practices
GMP Good Manufacturing Practices
genetically modified
GMO Genetically Modified Organism
GM-CSF Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor
GMPP Genetically Modified Pest-Protected
GN Gram-negative
GPC gel permeation chromatography
GRAS generally recognized as safe
GSC Gas-Solid Chromatography
GSDB Genome Sequence Data Base
H441 Human pulmonary adenocarcinoma cell line
HA haemagglutination
HAACP Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point
HCA hydrophobic cluster analysis
HDC HydroDynamic Chromatography
HDL High Density Lipoprotein
HEL Human Embryonal Lung cells
HeLa Human cervical adenocarcinoma cell line
HEPA high-efficiency particulate air
HepG2 Human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line
HGPRT hypoxanthineguanine phosphoribosyl transferase activity
HHI Herfindahl-Hirschman Index
HIMA Health Industries Manufacturers Association
HL-60 Human acute leukemia cell line
HLA human leukocyte antigen
HM Hazardous Material
HPC Heterotrophic Plate Count Bacteria
HPLC High Performance Liquid Chromatography
HPRT hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase
HPTLC High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography
HRCGC High Resolution Capillary Gas Chromatography
HREELS High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy
HRFIMS high-resolution field-ionization mass spectrometry
HRGC high-resolution gas chromatography
HRMS high-resolution mass spectrometry
HRP Horseradish Peroxidase
HSL Hazardous Substances List
HW Hazardous Waste
IA immunoassay
IC ion chromatography
IC Inhibitory concentration
ICA Immunocytochemical assay
ICAP inductively coupled argon plasma emission spectroscopy
ICH International Conference of Harmonization
ICP/AES inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectroscopy
ICP/MS inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry
ICP/OES inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry
IDC interdigitating cell
IDE Investigational Device Exemption
ID-MS Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry
IEC Ion-Exchange Chromatography
IEF Isoelectric Focusing
IEP immunoelectrophoresis
IFA Immunofluorescent Assay
IFCC International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine
IFE Immunofixation electrophoresis
IFIX Immunofixation
Ig immunoglobulin
IgG immunoglobulin G
IgM immunoglobulin M
IHA Indirect hemagglutination
IL interleukin
IMD Immunodiffusion
IND Investigational New Drug
IMR32 Human neuroblastoma cell line — differentiated
IP Immunoperoxidase
IR immune response
IR Infrared
IRMA Immunoradiometric Assay
IRS Internal Reflection Spectroscopy
ISCA Ionization Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis
ISS Ion Scattering Spectrometry
ISS in situ sampling
IVD In Vitro Diagnostic
KIA Kligler’s iron agar
LA Latex agglutination
LAF Laminar Air Flow
LAL Limulus Amebocyte Lysate
LAMMS Laser Micro Mass Specrometry
LC Lethal Blood Concentration
LC Liquid Chromatography
LC/MS liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry
LD Loading dose
LD-MS Laser-assisted desorption mass spectrometry
LDL Low Density Lipoprotein
LEED Low Energy Electron Diffraction
LEEM Low Energy Electron Microscopy
LET Leukocyte esterase test
LFA leukocyte functional antigen
LFM Lateral force microscopy
LGL large granular lymphocyte
LI leachability index
LIF Laser-induced Fluoresecence
LIMS Laboratory Information Management Systems
LIS laser-isotope separation
LKV Laked kanamycin-vancomycin agar
LLC Liquid-Liquid Chromatography
LLNA Local Lymph Node Assay
Lm Listeria monocytogenes
LM Light microscopy
LMC Lymphocyte microcytotoxicity
LMOs living modified organisms
LOAEL Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level
LOD Limit Of Detection
LPA Latex particle agglutination
LPS lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin)
LRMA Laser Raman Micro Analysis
LSC Liquid Scintillation Counter
LSC Liquid-Solid Chromatography
LT lymphotoxin
LTR Light transmission ratio
M Molar
MAb Monoclonal Antibody
MAC MacConkey Agar
MAC-EIA IgM antibody capture EIA
MAD multi-wavelength anomalous diffraction
MAF macrophage activating facor
MALDI matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization

MALT mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue
MAP Mouse Antibody Production
MBC Minimum bactericidal concentration
MC Moisture content
MCA MultiChannel Analyser
MCB Master Cell Bank
MDCK Madin Darby Canine Kidney cells
MDGC MultiDimensional GC
MDL minimum detection limit
MEIA Microparticle enzyme Immunoassay

MHC major histocompatibility complex

MIC Minimum Inhibitory Concentration
MID Multiple Ion Detection
MIF macrophage inhibition factor
MLA mouse lymphoma assay
MLC mixed lymphocyte culture
MLC Minimum lethal concentration
MLR mixed lymphocyte response
MO monocyte
MPI MultiPhoton Ionization
MPN Most Probable Number
MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging
MRLs maximum residue limits
MS Mass Spectrometry
MSDS Material Safety Data Sheet
MSIA mass spectrographic immunoassay

MW Molecular weight

NAA neutron activation analysis
NB Northern Blot

NBE New Biological Entity
NCCLS National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards
NCE New Chemical Entity
NCS Noncrystallographic Symmetry
NCTR National Center for Toxicological Research
NDR Nondispersive Infrared Analysis
NDT nondestructive testing
NEPH Nephelometry

NF National Formulary
NHK Normal human keratinocyte
NHNP Human brain neural progenitor cell line
NICI Negative Ion Chemical Ionization
NIR Near Infrared
NIRA Near-Infrared Reflectance Analysis
NK cell natural killer cell
NME New Molecular Entity

NMR Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
NT2 Human brain neural progenitor cell line; from teratocarcinoma
NT Neutralization
NTP National Toxicology Program
OD optical density
OES Optical Emission Spectroscopy
O-F Oxidation-fermentation medium
OMA Optical Multichannel Analyzer
OMH optimal matching hydrophobicity
OOS Out of Specification

ORD optical rotatory dispersion

ORF Open reading frame

OVA organic vapor analyzer
PAA photon activation analysis
PAF platelet activating factor
PAGE Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
PAS PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy
PB=PK physiologically based pharmacokinetic model
PCNA Proliferating cell nuclear antigen
PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction
PD Pharmacodynamics
PD Plasma Desorption
PDMS Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry
PDA Potato dextrose agar

PDMS plasma-desorption mass spectrometry
PEA Phenylethyl alcohol agar
PEEM Photoemission electron microscopy
PEP Protein electrophoresis
PES PhotoElectron Spectroscopy
PES Photoemission spectroscopy
PEt Potential evapotranspiration
PFC plaque-forming cell

PFGE Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis
PFU plaque-forming unit
PHA phytohemagglutinin
PHB Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate
Pk Pharmacokinetics
PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction
PPD Purified protein derivative
ppt parts per thousand
PTGS Post-transcriptional Gene Silencing
QC Quality Control
QNS Quantity not sufficient.
QTL Quantitative Trait Loci
RAPD Random amplified polymorphic DNA
RAST radioallergosorbent test
rDNA recombinant DNA

RDA recommended daily allowance
REA Radiative energy attenuation
REM Reflection Electron Microscopy
RFLP Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
RFU Relative fluorescent units
RGA Residual gas analyzer
RH Relative Humidity
RI Refractive Index
RIA Radioimmunoassay
RID Radial Immunodiffusion
RIP Radioimmunoprecipitation
RIPA Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay
RIS Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy
RIST radioimmunosorbent test
RT Room Temperature
RNA Ribonucleic Acid
RO Reverse Osmosis
RPLC Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography
RT-PCR Reverse Transciptase PCR

SAL Sterility Assurance Level
SAM Scanning Auger Microscopy
SAS statistical analysis system
SB Southern blot

SC subcutaneous
SD Standard Deviation
SE Standard Error
SE Salmonella enteritidis
SEM scanning electron microscope
SH-SY5Y Human neuroblastoma cell line — differentiated
SHE Syrian hamster embryo cell
SIMS Secondary-ion bombardment mass spectrometry

SFC supercritical fluid chromatography
SFE supercritical fluid extraction
SOP standard operating procedure
SPE Solid Phase Extraction
SPIA Solid-phase immunosorbent assay
SPM Scanning probe microscopy
SR Sedimentation rate
SR-4897 Murine stromal cells
SRB Sulfate Reducing Bacteria
SRBC sheep red blood cells
SSMS Static secondary ion mass spectrometry
STA standard tube agglutination test
STEM Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy
STM scanning tunneling microscope
STS Scanning tunneling spectroscopy
SX solvent extraction
T-M Thayer-Martin

TA Tube agglutination

TAP transporter of antigen protein

TCA Tissue Culture Association
TCR T-cell receptor
TCLP Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure
TCM Tissue Culture Medium
TDM Therapeutic drug monitoring

TDS Total Dissolved Solids
TEF Toxicity equivalency factor
TEM transmission electron microscopy
TEQ Toxicity equivalent
TET Thermometric Enthalpimetric Titration
TFFF Thermal Field Flow Fractionation
TG Thermogravimetry
TGA thermal gravimetric analysis
TG/MS thermal gravimetric/mass spectrometry
TIC total inorganic carbon
Tk Toxicokinetics
TLC thin-layer chromatography
TLD thermoluminescent dosimeter
TMA ThermoMechanical Analysis
TOC Total Organic Carbon

TPC Total Plate Count
TSCA Toxic Substances Control Act
TSI Triple sugar iplw
TSS Total Suspended Solids
UCL upper control limit
UF Ultra Filtration
UFA unsaturated flow apparatus
UT ultrasonic testing
UVGI Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation

VES vapor extraction system
VOC Volatile Organic Compounds
VSS vapor sampling system

WB Western blot
WBC white blood cell
XLD xylose-lysine-desoxycholate
XRD X-ray diffraction
XRF X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy
ZN Ziehl Neelsen

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